The high-speed rail is built for long-distance travel since it can get passengers to their destination quicker. Generally, high-speed trains run at speeds above 200 km/h. Their dedicated tracks are designed to accommodate such high speeds without the risk of fire from friction. The high-speed train is reduced time and money costs.
They are also far more environmentally friendly than airplanes. They can carry more passengers and also use less fuel. They reduce the time costs of airport boarding, check-in, takeoff, and disembarking.
High-speed rail is the fastest ground-based method of commercial transportation. In 2007, a Euroduplex TGV train broke a record of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph), making it the fastest conventional wheeled train in the world
Long-distance trains are built for travels between different regions of a country. They even cross through several countries at times. They usually have a restaurant or dining car so that passengers can have a pleasant meal during their journey. Trains that travel overnight also have sleeping cars so that passengers can rest during the travel. Distances over 500 miles are usually reserved for air travel, but trains are a cheap and popular way to travel long distances in many countries. There are many different types of long-distance trains around the world.
Inter-city trains are generally long-distance trains that connect metropolitan areas in a country. The distances they cover are usually comparable to airline flights but they still move at highway speeds. They may provide some amenities like sleeper cars or dining options.
Inter-city railways may sometimes provide international services as well. This is popular in Europe where travel is more open and around 50 countries are nearby. The main examples of such trains are the EuroCity and Eurostar, which people use as a comfortable option to travel long distances.
A rack railway (also rack-and-pinion railway, cog railway, or cogwheel railway) is a steep grade railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail. This allows the trains to operate on steep grades above 10%, which is the maximum for friction-based rail. Most rack railways are mountain railways, although a few are transit railways or tramways built to overcome a steep gradient in an urban environment.
The first cog railway was the Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds in West Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom, where the first commercially successful steam locomotive, Salamanca, ran in 1812. This used a rack and pinion system designed and patented in 1811 by John Blenkinsop.
The first mountain cog railway was the Mount Washington Cog Railway in the U.S. state of New Hampshire, The first mountain rack railway in continental Europe was the Vitznau-Rigi-Bahn on Mount Rigi in Switzerland, which opened in 1871. Both lines are still running.
Vintage & Heritage Trains
A heritage railway or heritage railroad is a railway operated as living history to re-create or preserve railway scenes of the past. Heritage railways are often old railway lines preserved in a state depicting a period (or periods) in the history of rail transport.
These are also known as ‘lines of local interest’, museum railways, or tourist railways that have retained or assumed the character and appearance and operating practices of railways of former times. Several lines that operate in isolation provide genuine transport facilities, providing community links. Most lines constitute tourist or educational attractions in their own right. Much of the rolling stock and other equipment used on these systems is original and is of historic value in its own right. Many systems aim to replicate both the look and operating practices of historic former railways companies.